Near Miss Reporting
I explain a near miss as an incident that didn't realise it's full potential. To expand - if something happens and it had the (real) potential to harm someone then it is a near miss. If something happens and a person is injured then it is an incident. The distinction between an incident and a near miss is the presence (or lack of) injury.
To illustrate in a more real life way - someone dropping a hammer from a ladder when someone is in the immediate vicinity , and the person on the ground suffers no harm, is a near miss. Had the person been in a different position or the hammer fallen in a different direction then an incident could have occurred. This, to me, is a real near miss (or near hit as some people refer to it).
Hope this helps!